There is a lot of discussion and experimentation going on in the world now about the fourth industrial revolution. The contribution of the first industrial revolution was the invention of the steam-engine. Power generation contributed to the Second Industrial Revolution. The third industrial revolution is also called the computer or digital revolution. The Fourth Industrial Revolution has some qualitative differences compared to previous revolutions. In this revolution, the machine is being made intelligent. People have used instruments in previous revolutions. In the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the instrument is gaining the ability to run itself. The device is being intelligent through artificial intelligence and machine learning. The capacity of the device is much higher than the human brain and the processing capacity is much faster. The instrument can make many perfect and efficient decisions. Due to the Internet, the scope of these activities has expanded a lot. An intelligent computer sitting in one country can command an instrument in another country, an instrument can measure the temperature of a room in that country and increase or decrease the temperature.
Technology is changing very fast in the era of Fourth Industrial Revolution. People are preoccupied with the present but the impact of new technology is far-reaching. The impact of this revolution on human civilization is very deep and wide. It may open the door to possibilities, but it will also bring new challenges. Countries that have a lot of money will be able to make more profit by spending on research. The difference between rich and poor countries will increase. Jobs will be divided into unskilled-low wages and highly skilled-high wages, skilled people will get jobs in these categories, unskilled people will become unemployed. The technology to keep chips in the human body has come out. In the future, chips implanted in the body will be able to provide a variety of health information. However, chips can be a challenge to a person’s privacy.
These smart devices can be bad news for Bangladesh, especially the ready-made garment industry. About 6 million workers work in this sector. Dependency on these workers will be reduced through the use of robots and smart devices. Many workers may become unemployed. Not just the ready-made garment industry, but dependency on many more professions will decrease, the use of robots and machines will increase. If driverless cars are introduced, the driver’s job will also become unnecessary. There is a lot of research being done on driverless cars in the developed world. The idea is that driverless cars will be relatively safe and environment friendly. They will also reduce traffic jams and pollution. Many drivers in our country will lose their jobs. This will be a big challenge for Bangladeshi expatriates. However, people will need to provide services that have a human touch. On the other hand, the need for talent-based professions such as programmers, artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things (IoT), etc. will increase the demand for skilled people. There is a shortage of skilled programmers in our country. It will be a big challenge. We need to create skilled programmers.
Due to digitization a lot of data is being created now. Our smart cars are getting the data about where we are going, where we are spending our time. Our bank account, mobile wallet, the credit card can match our cost. What we see is on smartphones, smart TVs. These data could not be saved earlier. Now saving in the cloud is easy and low cost. Due to its fast processing capability, computers can easily analyze these data and make decisions.
Computers are being given artificial intelligence. AI can decide by analyzing the data based on the previous situation. The computer is trained first, the computer can guess a pattern. As a result, the computer can recognize the color, size, posture later. At present, if any transaction is done, it is recorded in the ledger. A ledger is kept centrally. The ledger is spread across the blockchain among all participants. As a result, no one can cheat, because everyone has a ledger. Each transaction creates a block. It connects to the previous block to form a chain. Blockchain is not just about financial transactions; Contracts, land deeds, and records of exchange can be kept. If blockchain is introduced, many jobs of middlemen will be reduced. Financial inclusion will increase.
3D printing is the process of preparing something by putting layers on the design. It can be used to make complex objects (such as plastic, aluminum, ceramics, steel, etc.) without any complex equipment. It will now be possible to make things on a printing machine that used to require a factory. This will speed up the making of accessories. The cycle of ‘ready from design’ will be shorter. The import-dependent Bangladesh ready-made garment industry will be able to make many things on 3D printers themselves. Transportation costs will be reduced, which will reduce environmental pollution.
Being able to send messages to people through the internet. It is the Internet of Things or IoT. There is a lot of research being done on IoT in the developed world. When you are ready to go home by car, your car will send a message to the home AC. The AC will turn on automatically at certain times so that when you enter the room, you get the desired temperature. Your housekeeper robot will take the snacks from the fridge and heat it in the microwave. The fridge will scan the food stored inside it, consider your eating habits, orders in online e-commerce to be placed.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution is knocking at the door. In the developed world, there is a lot of research on blockchain, AI, robotics, driverless cars, 3D printing. All of these will have an impact on our country. So far, the only thing we deserve in the world market is cheap labor. Robotics, AI may cause us to lose this advantage. On the other hand, the demand for people with technical knowledge and skills, including computer programmers and data analysts, will increase.
However, it is hoped that the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Division has been given a good allocation in the national budget for working to develop the necessary infrastructure for the expansion of information and communication technology and to provide services to the people at their doorsteps. It has been said to work on various aspects of technology to build the country as a digital Bangladesh and to make the fourth industrial revolution based on technology a success. To build the country as a digital Bangladesh and to make the fourth industrial revolution based on technology successful and to be a partner, the use of technology in education, expansion of technology education, and working with blockchain technology were highlighted. This is an important initiative.